A Basic Intro to How Does a Battery Store Energy

As the world is tilting towards the adoption of green renewable energy, several means have been devised to ensure they are properly stored and utilized. The use of batteries is one of the most common ways through which renewable energy is stored.

A battery is a device that fosters the storage of energy retained from renewable and non-renewable sources. These energies are stored in the form of chemicals, and later converted into electrical energy by the means of electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction.

This article will further explain the concept behind battery energy storage systems and answer questions like what energy is stored in a battery, how do batteries storeenergy and the numerous benefits of the battery storage system?

What is a Battery Energy Storage System 

Battery energy storagesystem (BESS) is a technology that encourages proper storage and conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. Battery storage technology allows the continuous use of devices even when there is no direct electrical connection.

Battery stores energy from grids or renewable sources in chemical form and then transforms them into electrical energy on demand. This process has ensured that residential and commercial areas have access to continuous power supply during blackouts and harsh weathers.

In recent times, a lot of home appliances, devices, and automobiles now make use of lithium batteries to store energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources. During peak times when energy rates are much more expensive, The lithium battery comes in handy as it helps users save more by utilizing previously stored energy. 

Light EV Lithium Battery
Light EV Lithium Battery

Lithium batteries allow the transfer of electrons between both electrical terminals. Such batteries store energy (charge) when electrons move between the cathode and anode. And when electrons move from the anode to the cathode, chemical energy begins to convert into electrical energy causing the battery to discharge (Learn: A Comprehensive Guide for Anode and Cathode of Diode).

Lithium-ion batteries are the most dominant form of battery storage and with the constant development, they are now equipped with capacity strong enough to power large commercial buildings and RV trailers. Although other types of batteries such as lead-acid, flow battery, zinc e.t.c. can be applied, lithium-ion batteries energy is mostly used due to their efficiency/capacity.

How Does a Battery Store Energy

Batteries are not capable of storing electricity. They ensure all electrical energy is properly stored by converting them into chemical form through electrochemical processes. All batteries are made up of two electrical terminals – positive and negative. The positive side is known as Cathode, while the negative side is known as Anode; and they are separated by a chemical material known as Electrolyte. 

Chemical Reaction During Battery Charge

Batteries tend to function as a result of electrochemical reactions known as oxidation and reduction. The reaction involves the transmission of electrons between different chemical species. Oxidation occurs at the anode when a chemical species loses an electron or more, while reduction occurs at the cathode when a chemical species gains one or more electrons.

The oxidation process will either help to produce positive ions or eliminate negative ions from the solution present at the anode. The reduction process on the other hand ensures the removal of positive ions or the production of negative ions from the solutions present at the cathode. This whole process will help to produce electrically charged solutions and ensure easy flow of electrons. 

Two Ways for Batteries to Get Energy

Energy that is stored in batteries can be derived from various sources before being converted into electrical energy. Nearly all energy can be stored and converted, regardless of how they are produced. Below are two major ways energy can be derived.

  • Batteries Get Energy From Power Grid

Power grid is made up of multiple power plants, distribution centers, and transmission lines. It is responsible for balancing the demand and supply of electricity to individuals and businesses across specific geographical locations.

Installed Power Grid
Installed Power Grid

Power grid ensures a higher amount of power capacity is provided, facilitates favorable utilization of electrical resources, and encourages the distribution of a more economical power supply system.

Since the power grids are not built to store power, Lithiumion battery storage is incorporated to ensure energy is stored for later use.

  • Batteries Get Energy From Off-grid Source
Solar Panels and Wind Mills
Solar Panels and Wind Mills

Off grid energy involves the harnessing of power from renewable sources such as sun, wind, water e.t.c. These energy types ensure sun, wind and water are trapped and used to power equipment like solar panels, windmills, or water turbines. 

These equipment allow energy gotten from each source to be properly transformed into electrical energy and stored in batteries for later use. Before the stored energy can be utilized, an inverter will be needed to convert the Direct Current (DC) from batteries into Alternating Current (AC) for electricity supply.

What are the Benefits of Battery Storage

The use of stored batteries has allowed people to get constant access to electricity regardless of how it was generated. Apart from this, there are several other benefits that can be enjoyed from the use of battery storage. Below are some of them.

  • Small but Powerful 

Storage batteries tend to be smaller in size compared to the amount of energy they retain. This is because most of the battery storage in use today is made up of lithium metal oxide. And on the periodic table, lithium stands as the lightest metal and also one of the most eager in shedding electrons. This feature gave room for enhancement, resulting in a reduced battery size for marine utility.

  • Environmentally Friendly 

The more power generation tilts away from the use of fossil fuel, the better it is for the environment. Plants that make use of fossil fuel emit a large amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. These carbon dioxide critically influence climate change and can be harmful to human health. Meanwhile battery storage allows the usage of green, renewable energy with zero carbon footprint.

  • Longer Lifespan

As long as it is used according to specifications, battery energy storage system lifespan can range between 5-20 years. Once the required kit has been installed, the battery storage system requires little to no maintenance. Compared to other forms of energy generation, the storage of the battery requires the least amount of maintenance. 

  • Higher Security 

Lithium-ion is quite sensitive to some environmental and human factors. Exceeding the specified operational limits may result in fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, a lot of the recently manufactured battery energy storage systems (BESS) are equipped with sensors and other features that ensure flexible monitoring of the battery activity.

  • An Emergency Backup Energy Supply 

In the early days of battery storage technology, the primary purpose was to provide emergency backup energy supply for a short period. This continued until the discovery and further modification of the lithium-ion battery.

BESS still serves this purpose, although it now lasts for a longer period of time. For a steady backup energy at home, the Polinovel lithium energy storage battery series is a great choice. 

  • Can be Changed and Discharged Repeatedly

One good feature that distinguishes the lithium-ion battery from some others is the recharging feature. This feature enables the BESS to be charged recurrently. This is possible as a result of ion movement between negative Anode and positive Cathode electrolytes.

The Most Common Energy Storage Battery 

There are various types of energy storage batteries but the LifePO4 is the most common type. This particular battery is mostly used at home (learn: Best 5 Battery Backup for Home [Full Guide]) to provide uninterrupted power supply, and also to prepare users for unforseen power failure. The LifePO4 is equipped with a classic LCD display screen for easy monitoring of the battery’s status, and it is also compatible with several inverter brands.

Bluetooth LifePO4 Energy Storage Battery
Bluetooth LifePO4 Energy Storage Battery

LifePO4 battery also remains the most common type of battery due to its safety feature. The battery is made up of a stable P-O bond in its iron phosphate crystal which makes it difficult to decompose. One other feature that makes it relevant is its temperature performance. The lithium iron phosphate allows its peak temperature to extend up to 350°-500° C, unlike lithium manganate whose peak is 200° C.

Apart from being used in residents, the LifePO4 battery can practically be used in the automobile industry due to its low cost and safety advantage. Vehicles that make use of it include; passenger cars, busses, low-speed electric vehicles, golf carts, logistic vehicles e.t.c. The LifePO4 battery also has a high charging and discharging efficiency. It records a longer battery lifespan and is generally eco friendly.

Polinovel: Providing Reliable Energy Storage Lithium Batteries

Battery Discharge Process
Battery Discharge Process

Polinovel is the most innovative lithium batteries manufacturer with a track record of over 15 years. We are determined to satisfy our customers with safe, enhanced, and proficient lithium batteries which can be applied to meet various needs. Our lithium batteries can be utilized for RV trailers, marine, golf cart, and solar system applications. 

At Polinovel, we take our time to customize batteries to meet the needs of our clients. Our product customizable features include; lithium battery specifications, lithium battery appearance, lithium battery functions, and lithium battery brand information.

As an organization that keeps in touch with the trend of technological development, we already manufacture batteries with LCD and Bluetooth features for flexible monitoring of energy consumption, recharging, and lifespan. During the course of production, we’ve included an extra self-heating feature for our customers in cold areas. This feature ensures that stored energy in battery is properly utilized during the chilly winter season.

Thanks to the tenacity of our research and marketing teams, we have been able to tackle all product inefficiency and constantly pushed towards a safe/greener form of energy for all. You can contact us to experience the best custom-made services!


In a time like this where the human population is on a high rise, connectivity tends to increase; hence the demand for uninterrupted energy supply, not to mention the battery energy storage . BESS does not only provide uninterrupted power supply but also serves as a great substitute for fossil power plants. It ensures that energy from renewable sources like solar, wind, and hydro technology are properly conserved and transformed without emitting toxins into the atmosphere. 

In order to fully utilize and store energy from solar sources, the Polinovel energy storage package solution is just what you need. This package is integrated with top functioning LifePO4 solar batteries, (learn: Top 10 Best Batteries for Solar Power Storage) high efficiency pure sine wave hybrid inverters, and Grade A monocrystalline solar panels. At Polinovel, we ensure our customers are served with quality products of remarkable values and reasonable warranties on each of them.

Bonus Tips: How Does Battery Discharge Work

Discharge of energy occurs in a battery from time to time. The process involves the breakdown of sulphuric acid due to the electrical load placed on the terminal of a battery. The emerging sulphate ions then travel to the negative plates to react with the plate’s active materials in order to shed negative charge through ionization.

As the discharge process continues, the ratio of sulphuric acid to water in the electrolyte solution begins to change into excess water and less acid. And the major chemical by-product derived from the process is known as lead sulphate. This by-product tends to reduce the surface area within each cell due to the coats on the battery plates; hence the reduction of amperage or current produced.

Another thing to take note of is Battery Self Discharge, which happens even when the battery was never connected to any device. It happens when batteries are placed in an area with a temperature above 50°C.

Lithium ion batteries tend to last longer in colder conditions like 0°C. Batteries coated with hard rubber materials can also lose their charge when placed on concrete floors. But recent batteries that are coated with polypropylene do not have any concern when placed on concrete floors.

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